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APPLICATION OF HADRONIC MECHANICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND CHEMISTRY TO NEW CLEAN FUELS AND ENERGIES

Prepared by the IBR staff

For a general presentation on Santilli's Magnegas™ Technology please visit the web site http://www.magnegas.com/


PART I: SUMMARY OF
SANTILLI'S MAGNEGAS™ TECHNOLOGY


For a Power Presentation on marketing or for a VCR on the Magnegas™ Technology contact info@magnefuels.com



TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. CURRENT ALARMING ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AND THEIR EXPECTED SOLUTIONS

2. THE BIRTH OF SANTILLI'S MAGNEGAS™ TECHNOLOGY

3. SANTILLI PLASMA-ARC-FLOW™ RECYCLERS

4. EFFICIENCY AND OPERATING COSTS OF PLASMA-ARC-FLOW™ RECYCLERS

5. THE NOVEL CHEMICAL STRUCTURE OF MAGNEGAS™

6. THE NOVEL CHEMICAL STRUCTURE OF MAGNEHYDROGEN™

7. INCREASED EFFICIENCY OF FUEL CELLS OPERATED WITH MAGNEHYDROGEN™ AND MAGNEOXYGEN™

8. MAGNEGAS™ EXHAUST SURPASSES EPA REQUIREMENTS WITHOUT CATALYTIC CONVERTER

9. ANOMALOUS THE ENERGY CONTENT OF MAGNEGAS™

10. USE OF MAGNEGAS™ FOR THE GENERATION OF ELECTRICITY

11. USE OF THE MAGNEGAS™ TECHNOLOGY FOR RECYCLING CITY AND FARM SEWAGE

12. PROCESSING CRUDE OIL INTO THE CLEAN-BURNING OXYGEN-RICH MAGNEGAS™

13. USE OF MAGNEGAS™ AND MAGNEHYDROGEN™ AS AUTOMOTIVE FUEL

14. USE OF THE MAGNEGAS™ TECHNOLOGY IN CIVILIAN AND MILITARY SHIPS

15. CONSUMER PLASMA-ARC-FLOW™ RECYCLERS

16. USE OF MAGNEGAS™ FOR METAL CUTTING


1. CURRENT ALARMING ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AND THEIR EXPECTED SOLUTIONS

According to official data released by the U. S. Department of Energy (see, e.g., http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/international/energy.html), by ignoring the world-wide consumption of natural gas and coal, we consume nowadays about 74 million barrels of crude oil per day, which correspond to the consumption of about four trillion gallons of gasoline per day.

Such a large consumption is due to the average daily use in our planet of about 1,000,000,000 cars, 1,000,000 trucks, 100,000 planes plus an unidentifiable number of additional vehicles of military, agricultural, industrial and other nature.

FIGURE 1: Some statistics on the disproportional consumption in the U.S.A. alone of crude oil, natural gas and coal.

The extremely serious environmental problems caused by the above disproportionate combustion are discussed in detail in http://www.magnegas.com/technology/part1.htm and can be summarized as follows:

(1) The release in our atmosphere of about thirty millions metric tons of green house gases (carbon dioxide CO2) per day, of which only 20 millions metric tons are estimated to be recycled by our ever decreasing forests. This implies the release in our atmosphere of about ten millions metric tons of unrecycled green house gases per day, which release is the cause of the "global warming" now visible to everybody through climactic episodes due to floods, tornadoes, etc. of increasing catastrophic nature.

(2) The permanent removal from our atmosphere of about 7 millions metric tons of breathable oxygen per day (oxygen depletion), that is evidently the oxygen O2 contained in the unrecycled excess of green house gas CO2. This is a very serious environmental problem that has been ignored by all until recently, except a few experts such as Prof. Santilli who introduced the name "oxygen depletion" in the paper http://www.magnegas.com/technology/part6.htm. It appears that everybody ignored until recently the fact that the combustion of fossil fuels requires atmospheric oxygen. Since only the global warming was considered until recently by newsmedia, governments and industries, it appears that everybody was ignoring the fact that we need to breath oxygen for our own existence. Nowadays, various environmental groups, unions and other concerned groups are becoming aware that the increasing number of heart problems in densely populated area is indeed due to local oxygen depletion caused by excessive fossil fuel combustion.

(3) The emission in our atmosphere of about seven millions metric tons of highly carcinogenic and toxic substances per day. They are the byproduct of the combustion of hydrocarbons, and are the primary source of widespread increase of cancer in our societies. A moment of reflection is sufficient for anybody to see that we inhale on a daily basis carcinogenic substances from gasoline exhaust in an amount that is several thousands times bigger than carcinogenic substances ingested with food. This is another very serious environmental problem that has remained virtually ignored by all until recently, and has been treated with euphemisms such as "atmospheric pollution". However, this third major environmental problem caused by fossil fuel combustion has now propagated to environmental, unions and other circles with predictable legal implications for the fossil fuel industry and its major users, unless suitable corrective measures are initiated, as it occurred for the tobacco industry.

It was generally believed until recently that the combustion of natural gas alleviates the above alarming environmental problems, with particular reference to a reduction of carcinogenic and green house emissions. However, recent measurements have disproved this belief because, under the same performance, natural gas is more polluting than gasoline (see the EPA accredited measurements presented below in Sections 8 and 10).

It was also believed until recently that hydrogen and fuel cells resolve all the above problems, since their exhaust is given by water vapor. However, irrespective of whether used as fuel for internal combustion engines or for fuel cells, hydrogen removes atmospheric oxygen for its combustion and, under the same performance, hydrogen combustion causes more oxygen depletion than gasoline combustion. This is a major environmental problem that has been ignored by the hydrogen community until recently. This is unfortunate because, again, life requires oxygen. Also, it has been estimated that if all currently used fossil fuels were replaced by hydrogen according to current production methods (see below), life on Earth would disappear in a few years due to the exhaustion of oxygen.

Moreover, due to the low efficiency of the currently available methods for the production of hydrogen (such as electrolysis or reformation), the electric energy used for the production of hydrogen releases in our atmosphere more green gases and carcinogenic substances than gasoline combustion.

Admittedly, hydrogen is indeed an environmentally acceptable fuel, but under clearly identified conditions such as:

i) Hydrogen must be produced via the electrolytic separation of water, rather than very polluting reformations of fossil fuels (whose gaseous byproducts, including green house and carcinogenic gases, are merely released in the atmosphere);

ii) Oxygen produced via electrolytic processes must be released in the atmosphere, so that it can be re-used at the time of combustion, thus leaving unchanged the oxygen balance in our atmosphere; and

iii) The electricity used for the electrolytic separation of water must be environmentally acceptable, such as that originating from hydroelectric, wind and other clean energy sources.

In reality, even when hydrogen is produced from the electrolytic separation of water, oxygen is sold, rather than released in the atmosphere. Also, clean energy sources for the production of electricity are virtually ignorable for our large scale fuel needs, and the electricity used for the production of hydrogen is essentially of fossil origin.

In conclusion, whether for hydrogen or for other fuels, the mere inspection of the tailpipe exhaust is today a view of the past millennium, if not interpreted as a political posture. The sole approach environmentally acceptable today is the study of the global environmental profile pertaining to fuels, thus including the methods for their production, transportation, storage and combustion. When analyzed on these global grounds, hydrogen and fuel cells result to be more polluting than gasoline because the current production and combustion of hydrogen are indeed more polluting than the current production and combustion of gasoline.

The above alarming environmental problems caused by all currently available fuels identify the following:

EXPECTED SOLUTIONS:

1) The most basic need of our contemporary societies is the development of new methods for the nonpolluting, large scale production of electricity.

2) We have to develop new methods for the production of hydrogen that are not environmentally polluting and do not cause oxygen depletion.

3) In view of the already enormous and ever increasing demand for fuels, it is easy to predict that hydrogen alone cannot replace fossil fuels, thus requiring basically new, industrially synthesized fuels with nonpolluting methods of production, transportation and storage, which fuels are internally rich in oxygen of non-atmospheric origin so as to replenish the oxygen depleted until now by fossil fuels and hydrogen combustion.

The Magnegas™ Technology was developed along these expected solutions, as we shall outline in nontechnical language in this "View at a Glance."


2. THE BIRTH OF SANTILLI'S MAGNEGAS™ TECHNOLOGY

The magnegas™ technology originated from the vision of President, now Nobel Laureate Jimmy Carter, whose Administration, under his guidance, solicited the U. S. Department of Energy to invite Prof. Ruggero Maria Santilli in the late 1970's, then at Harvard University, to apply for research grant for the development of new clean energies and fuels. The invitation was the result of the fact that Prof. Santilli was already known at that time for his research in surpassing established doctrines.

In 1979, jointly with a senior mathematicians at Harvard, Prof. Santilli became the Co-Principal Investigator of the following DOE research grants ER-78-S-02-47420.A000, AS02-78ER04742, DE-ACO2-80ER10651, DE-ACO2-80ER-10651.A001, and DE-ACO2-80ER10651.A002. These contracts were administered by Harvard University. Still as of today, Prof. Santilli remains deeply grateful to President Carter and his Administration for their vision that permitted the birth of basic advances.

By the late 1970s, all energies and fuels predicted by quantum mechanics had been essentially discovered. Therefore, the above research grants were used for the construction of a generalization of quantum mechanics today known as hadronic mechanics, a name indicating the primary applicability of the new mechanics in the interior of "hadrons" (that are all strongly interacting particles such as protons and neutrons), as well as to systems possessing similar physical characteristics (technically characterized by nonlocal, nonlinear and nonpotential interactions due to the mutual overlappings of the wavepackets of particles at short distances. These conditions are beyond any hope of treatment via quantum mechanics due to its strictly local, linear and potential structure).

Since there cannot be really new mechanics for nonlocal, nonlinear and nonpotential systems without surpassing the pre-existing mathematics for local, linear and potential systems, and since there cannot be really new mathematics without new numbers, Prof. Santilli's primary effort was the search of new numbers, today known as Santilli iso-, geno-, hyper- and isodual numbers, from which new mechanics and, consequently, new industrial applications, can follow uniquely and unambiguously.

Upon termination of the DOE support, in January 1984 Prof. Santilli assumed the position of President of the Institute for Basic Research, then in a Victorian house located on Harvard's grounds, and jointly entered into a scientific consulting agreement with Hadronic Press, Inc. (HPI),a private corporation, for the development of the industrial applications of hadronic mechanics to new clean energies and fuels. According to this agreement, the corporation provided Prof. Santilli with his salary, office facilities and research support. In turn, Prof. Santilli systematically assigned since 1984 to this corporation all intellectual rights resulting from his research, a condition that is still in effect at this writing.


FIGURE 2: Prof. Santilli is the world leader in the study of lightning and thunder, because he spent several years of research on new processes caused by lightning at the particle, nuclear and molecular levels (patented and international patents pending). These studies were initiated under DOE support while Prof. Santilli was at Harvard University in the late 1970's, and required a structural generalization of quantum mechanics into a new discipline today known as hadronic mechanics. The construction of the new hadronic mechanics became necessary because lighting causes contact nonpotential interactions among extended constituents (such as nuclei, atoms or molecules), which interactions are beyond any dream of serious treatment via quantum mechanics (since the latter mechanics can only represent point particles that, as such, cannot have contact interactions). In particular, a quantitative representation of thunder had remained un-achievable since the birth of science, because the small sectional area of lightning and its extremely short duration (of the order of nanoseconds) do not permit a credible achievement of the huge energy needed by thunder via conventional chemical processes. Prof. Santilli recalled that, one hundred millions year ago, our planet only had 40% nitrogen (as proved via air trapped in amber), that the nitrogen percentage in our atmosphere increased gradually, and that lightning is the only possible mechanism on Earth capable of slowly synthesizing nitrogen N(14,7) from carbon C(12. 6) and deuterium D(2,1), by instantaneously releasing all the energy needed to represent thunder (patented and international patents pending). Quantum mechanics strictly prohibits lighting to synthesize nitrogen, while the covering hadronic mechanics predicts this and several other syntheses, identifies their physical laws, and provides all methods needed for their industrial development. The birth of the magnegas™ technology occurred in the early 1990's when Prof. Santilli selected a submerged DC electric arc as a reproduction of lightning in an industrially meaningful, thus continuous way.

Following the signature of the consulting agreement of 1984, the first experimental tests on new energies and fuels based on hadronic mechanics were conducted in the early 1990s. The first patent application was filed in June 20, 1994, on the basic equipment of the new technology, scientifically called hadronic reactors™ (because based on hadronic mechanics) and industrially known as PlasmaArcFlow™ Recyclers. The first patent application on the new chemical species of Santilli electromagnecules, from which the new technology received its name, was filed on January 7, 1997. Numerous industrial development followed since that time, with a total investment to date in excess of five million dollars.

The technology is today protected by numerous patents and patent applications in the U.S.A. and abroad. The sole ownership of all world wide intellectual rights on the Magnegas™ Technology belongs to Hadronic Press, Inc., or to its subsidiaries or licensees. More information on patenting can be obtained from http://www.magnegas.com/technology/patent.htm All infringments, whether in the U. S. A. or abroad have been and will be prosecuted in local courts.

Thanks to the above comprehensive research over two decades, President Carter's and Prof. Santilli's dream of new clean energies and fuels is today a reality. The duration of the research is an illustration of its complexity, because really new clean energies and fuels require really new effects indicated earlier at the particle, nuclear and molecular levels, all structurally beyond quantum mechanics.

A detailed account of this long scientific journey has been recently reported in the post Ph. D. level monograph
R. M. Santilli,
FOUNDATIONS OF HADRONIC CHEMISTRY
WITH APPLICATIONS TO NEW CLEAN ENERGIES AND FUELS,"
Kluwer Academic Publisher
Dordrecht-Boston-London
December 2001
ISBN 1-4020-0087-1
Order by e-mail at Kluwer Academic Publishers.

An account of the new iso-,geno, hyper- and isodual numbers, mathematics and mechanics has been recently presented by Prof. Santilli at invited plenary talks at the Conference of the International Association for Relativistic Dynamics, Washington, Dc.C., June 2002, International Congress of Mathematicians, Hong Kong, August 2002, and International Conference on Physical Interpretation of Relativity Theories, London, September 2002, and it is available in pdf format in the memoir entitled
ISO-, GENO-, HYPER-MECHANICS FOR MATTER, THEIR ISODUALS, FOR ANTIMATTER, AND THEIR NOVEL APPLICATIONS IN PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGY,>
This memoir is in press at the Journal of Dynamical Systems and Geometric Theories. It contains a list of 225 technical references, including some 20 monographs and about 50 volumes of conference proceedings, that are directly relevant to the new clean energies and fuels under consideration here.

A nontechnical description of the new numbers and mechanics for the general public is available in the web site of the Institute for Basic Research. A number of recent monographs and technical articles, including monographs in Russian and Spanish languages, are available in pdf format in the IBR web page Scientific Works.

Prof. Santilli's curriculum and his complete list of publications is available in the web page http://i-b-r.org/santilli.htm


3. SANTILLI PLASMA-ARC-FLOW™ RECYCLERS

Following an in depth investigation of various possible processes, Prof. Santilli selected a particular new form of submerged electric arcs for the realization of his new energies and fuels. As indicated earlier, the selection was made for an industrial duplication of the processes and energies associated with lightning and Thunder. The selection was also based on the fact that electric arcs submerged within liquids are dramatically more efficient than other processes, such as plasmas within gases (because the density of gases is over 1,000 times smaller than that of liquids, thus having a dramatically smaller efficiency), electrolysis (because they have an efficiency that is less than 1/10-th that of submerged electric arcs, as we shall see, and have a production rate that is also a fraction that of submerged electric arcs), etc.

The new arc process is called PlasmaArcFlow™ (patented and international patents pending), and consists in flowing a liquid through an electric arc at a certain rate, a certain pressure and a certain temperature. Rather complex new laws of hadronic mechanics then permit the achievement of new clean energies and fuel via a judicious control of flow, pressure and temperature per each liquid considered, plus additives and a variety of peripheral processes. Visitors are, therefore, alerted that Prof. Santilli's technology is deceptively simple, because it tends to suggest that it merely deals with a submerged electric arc, while in reality its industrial realization implies the most advanced scientific knowledge available today. PlasmaArcFlow Recyclers™ are also called Hadronic Recyclers™ because they are based on the laws of hadronic (rather than quantum) mechanics.

FIGURE 3: A schematic view of Prof. Santilli's PlasmaArcFlow™ process underlying the technology (patented and international patents pending).

As it is well known, the submerged electric arc has been known for some 150 years. The combustible character of the gas it produces was discovered by sailors also 150 years ago who used to light up the bubbles of gas coming to the surface of the sea from undersea welding of metal ships. Despite this old knowledge, the underwater arc technology did not reach an industrial maturity until Prof. Santilli's research. This is due to the fact that underwater electric arcs do not produce an environmentally acceptable fuel, because they create an essentially stationary plasma near the tips of the electrodes in which plasma CO is turned into CO2 due to the presence of oxygen in the vicinity of a discharge. This implies the production of a combustible gas with up to 18% CO2 before combustion, thus being environmentally unacceptable.

Moreover, the glow of the underwater arc is essentially due to the fact that most of the hydrogen and oxygen obtained by the arc in its separation of the water molecule recombine into the water molecule via an implosion. This causes the magnificent glow of the underwater arc, and it is also a visual evidence of its very low efficiency. Therefore, conventional underwater electric arcs are less efficient than existing methods of water separation because most of the separated H and O atoms recombine into water.

These are the reasons why, during the past 150 years since its discovery, the underwater arc was unable to reach an industrial maturity for the production of a gaseous fuel despite numerous attempts. Prof. Santilli's new arc process, called PlasmaArcFlow™, has resolved all these problems and that is the reason why it has reached industrial maturity. In fact, Santilli's new process removes H, C, O and CO from the arc immediately following their formation, thus having only traces of CO2, preventing the recombination of H and O into H2O, and having an efficiency at least ten time that of standard submerged arcs. In this way, Prof. Santilli's new arc process implies a gas that is environmentally acceptable and cost effective, thus having the prerequisites for industrial maturity.

This presentation is primarily intended to outline magnegas™ as a fuel, while aspects pertaining to the production of new clean energies (independently from the production of a fuel) have been omitted for security reasons.Visitors interested in clean energies alone may contact Prof. Santilli directly at ibr@gte.net

Santilli's PlasmaArcFlow™ Recyclers are presented in detail in the web pages http://www.magnegas.com/technology/part1.htm and http://www.magnegas.com/technology/part2.htm. They can be outlined as follows:

3.A: PLASMA-ARC-FLOW™ TOTAL RECYCLERS.
They have been conceived and developed by Prof. Santilli for the complete elimination of unwanted liquid wastes, such as automotive antifreeze and oil waste, cooking oil waste, industrial, agricultural and marine liquid wastes, etc., as well as for the processing of crude oil into the clean burning magnegas™ (see below Section 12). A submerged electric arc between carbonaceous electrodes decomposes the molecules of the liquid feedstock into their atoms, ionizes the latter and forms a plasma at about 10,000 degrees F of mostly ionized H, C, O and other atoms. The PlasmaArcFlow™ moves said plasma away from the arc and controls the subsequent chemical reactions. By continuously recirculating the liquid through the arc, PlasmaArcFlow™ Recyclers completely eliminate the liquid waste and transform it into:

(1) Clean burning magnegas™ that bubbles to the surface where it is collected and then subjected to various purification processes;

(2) Carbonaceous solids that precipitate at the bottom of the recyclers where they are periodically removed and used for the production of electrodesor as sythetic coal; and

(3) Large amount of heat originating from the highly esoenergetic reactions for the formation of magnegas™ (such as the formation of CO that releases essentially the same heat as that from burning coal). This heat is acquired by the liquid feedstock and can be used via a heat exchanger for heating up buildings, partial self-generation of DC electricity of the arc via a steam turbine, desalting seawater via evaporation, and other applications.

Santilli Total Recyclers are environmentally very friendly because: they eliminate unwanted liquid wastes; they produce a combustible gas with clean exhaust (see Section 8 below); all their operations are internal and release nothing into the environment; and they cause no noise pollution since their sole noise is that of ordinary pumps and AC-DC converters.

Also, the use of ordinary coal for the production of electrodes enhances the energy content of magnegas™ and has other advantages. The great affinity of oxygen and carbon prevents other elements (such as sulphur) from participating in the synthesis of the gas, and precipitate as solids. Therefore, PlasmaArcFlow™ Recyclers also constitute a new method for the gasification of coal into a clean burning fuel.

FIGURE 4: A completely automatic, computer controlled small Total Recycler with 50 kW AC-DC converter for the recycling of water-base liquid wastes  built by Prof. Santilli in December 2000.


FIGURE 5: A completely automatic, remote controlled, industrial Total Recycler with 150 kW for the recycling of water-base and oil-base liquid wastes built by Prof. Santilli in June 2001.

3.B: PLASMA-ARC-FLOW™ LINEAR RECYCLERS.
They have been conceived and developed for the recycling of bio-contaminated waters such as city, agricultural or marine sewage (patented and international patents pending). While Total Recyclers can use liquids of any density provided that they can be pumped thought the arc, Linear Recyclers can process waters with up to 10% bio-contaminants, thus requiring a simply dilution in the event of bigger concentrations.

The primary purpose of Linear Recyclers is that of sterilizing bio-contaminanted waters in an environmentally friendly way. In fact, Linear Recyclers expose bio-contaminated liquids to the 10,000 degrees F of the electric arc, its very high DC currents, and its very intense ultraviolet light. All these factors eliminate any bacteriological activity while producing magnegas™. Also, while passing though the electric arc, substances in suspension are turned into a carbonaceous form, while substances in solution as well as the temperature of the liquid remain essentially unaffected due to the speed of the flow.

After passing through the electric arc, the liquid feedstock is passed through a centrifuge or other means for the removal of solids processed into said carbonaceous form, and finally through a filtration system. In this way, linear Recycler can process water with up to 10% bio-contaminants by producing:

(1) Clean burning magnegas™ as for the Total Recyclers;

(2) Carbonaceous materials that are used for the production of electrodes or for use as synthetic coal as for the Total Recyclers; and

(3) Filtered water that is as transparent as tap water, yet contains the original substances in solution, thus being excellent for irrigation.

Linear Recyclers too are environmentally very friendly because they release no contaminants of any type, cause no noise pollution, and produce no odor. As such, they are preferable over existing methods of sewage treatment, besides being cost competitive and producing a clean burning gaseous fuel.

FIGURE 6: A prototype of the Linear Recycler with 50 kW built by Prof. Santilli in October 2000.

FIGURE 7: A 3D view of a Linear Recycling Plant under construction by Prof. Santilli under European support. Note three PlasmaArcFlow™ Stations connected in a linear way (that explains the name of the recycler), the magnegas™ processing station and the irrigation water station. All PlasmaArcFlow™ Recyclers are completely automatic and can be operated at a distance.

3.C: PLASMA-ARC-FLOW™ GAS AND SPECIALTY RECYCLERS.
These recyclers are conceived and constructed for special purposes, such as (p;atented and international patents pending):

i) The processing of gaseous (rather than liquid) feedstocks for turning conventional hydrogen, oxygen and other gases into the novel MagneHydrogen™, MagneOxygen™ and other new species (see Section 7 below);

ii) The conversion of existing fossil fuels into a form without hydrocarbon content, thus being dramatically cleaners than their conventional form;

iii) New processes of hydrogenization;,br>

and other applications we cannot disclose here for security reasons. Interested visitors may contact Prof. Santilli directly at ibr@gte.net

For specifications and orders please contact info@magnefuels.com.


4. EFFICIENCY AND OPERATING COSTS OF PLASMA-ARC-FLOW™ RECYCLERS

Santilli Total Recyclers have a very high efficiency that implies low operating costs and the production of magnegas™ at a cost competitive over that of other fuels, of course, when produced in large volumes.

One reason of the high efficiency is fact that Santilli Hadronic Recyclers™ are conceived and constructed to burn carbon via the electric arc, rather than a flame. In the plasma surrounding the tip of the electrodes we have carbon in the presence of oxygen and an electric discharge, thus implying essentially the same esoenergetic chemical reactions occurring when burning coal on a stove, such as the formation of CO (that releases 255 Kilocalories per mole).

When processing water-base liquid feedstocks, the efficiency of Hadronic Recyclers™ is also very high because oil is added in the arc to unifgy the production of magnegas for different liquid feedstocks, as well as to increase the life of the electrodes and for other reasons. Even when no oil is added to the process, Hadronic Recyclers™ processing ordinary water have a very high efficiency because we still have the same chemical reactions occurring in burning carbon in a stove, the only difference being that carbon this time originates from the electrodes, rather than from the liquid feedstock.

We then have the scientific efficiency is the ratio between the total energy out and the total energy in, and that ratio is always smaller than one (scientific under-unity), evidently due to the principle of conservation of the energy, and we have the expression

Emg + Eheat
------------------------- < 1.
Eelectric + Eoil waste

However, operating costs cannot include the energy contained in oil wastes, because oil wastes bring an income for their recycling, rather than costing money. Therefore, the operating costs of total recyclers are based on the commercial efficiency that is given by the ratio between the total energy out and only the electric energy in. Such a ratio results to be much bigger than one (commercial over-unity) because the energy in oil wastes is much bigger than the electric energy per scf of magnegas™ produced, and we have the commercial expression

Emg + Eheat
------------------ >> 1.
Eelectric

We therefore have the following examples of operating costs of PlasmaArcFlow™ Recyclers.

OPERATING COSTS OF TOTAL RECYCLERS
Total Recycler Plant Model USMF-TR-300-8
Magnegas™ powered piston or turbine 300 kW AC electric generator
300 kW AC-DC converter;
Steam operated turbine to produce 250 kW DC current for the arc
Coal electrode diameter: 8"
Liquid feedstock: automotive oil waste, cooking oil waste or crude oil
Operating pressure: 300 psi
Operating temperature of the liquid 1,000 degrees F;
Magnegas™ production: about 6,000 scf/h = 4,800,000 BTU/h @ 800 BTU/scf
or the magnegas™ production of about 169,000 L/h
Heat production: 300 BTU/scf = 1.800,000 BTU/h
Liquid eliminated 44g/h = 1,000 g/day = 3,780 Liters/day Total electric energy input: 1,000,000 BTU/h
Total energy extracted from oil: 6.600,000/h
Commercial efficiency: about 6.6
Electricity used per scf: 50 W-h/scf-h
Direct cost of magnegas™
Electricity: $ 0.003/scf @ $ 0.06/kWh as day-night average
Personnel (one technician supervising 3 recyclers): $ 0.002/scf
Coal electrodes: $ 0.001/scf
Service (once a week): $ 0.0005/scf
Amortment of purchase price over 10 years: essentially null/scf
Cost of magnegas™ for a 0.9 MW plant of 3 recyclers:
without production of DC electricity: $ 0.0065/scf
with self-generation of DC electricity: $ 0.0035
less the income from the recycling of liquid wastes
less the income from the use of heat
plus administrative and other overheads

The cost competitiveness of Total Recyclers can be seen from the fact that natural gas now sells in the U. S. A. at about $ 0.01/scf, which cost should be compared to the cost of magnegas™, of course, only when produced in sufficiently large volumes. Also, the gasoline gallon equivalent of magnegas™ is of about 150 scf. Therefore, the cost of a gasoline gallon equivalent of magnegas™ is $ 0.52/g less the income from the recycling liquid wastes, less the income from the use of heat, plus overheads. It should be stressed that the above costs are solely applicable when magnegas™ is produced in sufficiently large volumes.

CONVERSIONS FROM BRITISH TO METRIC AND OTHER UNITS.
Conversion from liquid to gas: In the transition of state from liquid to gas for perfect gases one unit volume of liquid state is turned into 1,800 same unit volume of gas state. For magnegas™ this conversion rate is smaller than the above ideal value due to the magnecular anomalies, and varies from liquid to liquid. A conservative conversion rate used above is that one unit of liquid volume is turned into 1,000 same units of gas volume. Vice-versa, the production of 1,000 scf of magnegas™ implies the elimination of 1 scf of the liquid feedstock.
Conversion from cubic feet to gallons: 1 scf = 7.45 g;
Conversion from U. S. gallons to liters: 1 g = 3.78 L
Conversion from cubic feet to liters: 1 scf = 28.16 L.
Conversion from BTU to W: 1 W = 3.412 BTU.

OPERATING COSTS OF LINEAR RECYCLERS
Linear recycler model USMF-LC-300-3
Three PlasmaArcFlow™ Stations of 100 kW each
Coal electrodes diameter 3˛
Liquid feedstock: city or farm sewage with up to 10% biocontaminants
Operating pressure: atmospheric
Operating temperature of the liquid: ambient
Sewage recycling: about 7,000 g/h = 178,000 g/day
or the sewage recycling of about 26,000 L/h
Magnegas™ production: about 3,000 cf/h = 1,800,000 BTU/h @ 600 BTU/scf
or the magnegas™ production of about 85,000 L/h
Heat production: none usable
Irrigation water: about 6,995 g/h = 167,000 g/day
Direct cost of sewage recycling: Total cost of electricity: $ 18/h @ $ 0.006/kWh as day-night average
Cost of electricity: $ 0.003/g
Personnel (one technician supervising 3 plants): $ 0.0001/g
Coal electrodes: $ 0.001/g
Service (once a week per station): $ 0.0005/g
Amortment per gallon of purchase price over 10 years: essentially null
Direct cost of sewage recycling: $ 0.004/g or $ 4/1,000 g
less the income from the use of magnegas™
less the income from irrigation water
plus overheads and other charges.

The profitability of the plant can be seen form the fact that, on average, the current cost of processing city sewage is of the order of $ 4 per 1,000 gallons. Therefore, current charges essentially support the operating costs of Linear Recyclers, resulting in the production of magnegas™ and availability of irrigation water at truly competitive prices.

As one can see, by recalling that sewage is continuously available in any urban environment 24 hours per day, Prof. Santilli's Magnegas™ Technology has the dramatic implication of turning sewage into a competitor of crude oil, while producing a fuels cheaper and cleaner than gasoline.

For costs and delivery time please contact info@magnefuels.com

.

5. THE NOVEL CHEMICAL STRUCTURE OF MAGNEGAS™

Prior to Prof. Santilli's research, it was popularly believed that the gas produced by an underwater arc is composed of 50% H2 and 50% CO, with traces of other molecules such as CO2 and H2O. This belief has been disproved by numerous experimental evidence, such as:

(1) Since CO burns by producing CO2, a gas with 50% CO should produce about 40% CO2 in the exhaust, while the exhaust of magnegas™ produced from water contains only about 4% of CO2;

(2) According to well known chemical reactions, the creation of 50% H2 and 50% CO should produce 2,250 BTU per scf of magnegas™ produced (see the technical literature quoted in Section 2), while only 250 BTU/scf have been measured in magnegas™ produced from water, thus confirming that at most 5% CO may be contained in magnegas™;

(3) A gas composed of 50% H2 and 50% CO should exhibit under mass spectroscopy two corresponding large peaks. In reality, Gas Chromatographic Mass Spectrometers (GC-MS) analyses have indeed detected a large peak at 2 atomic mass units (amu) representing H2, although in a percentage much less than 50%, while detecting no peak at all representing CO.

The above (and other) experimental evidence establishes beyond credible doubt that magnegas™ does not possess a conventional molecular structure. In fact, the most important novelty of the technology is that magnegas™ is composed of the new chemical species of "Santilli magnecules" (patented and international patents pending), that constitutes the only new chemical species discovered by mankind since the identification of molecules by Avogadro, Canizzaro et al. over 150 years ago.

This discovery is the result of the two decades of research in physics, superconductivity and chemistry outlined in Section 2, with a post Ph.D. level presentation in Prof. Santilli recent monograph Elements of Hadronic Chemistry with Applications to New Clean Energies and Fuels quoted therein. A nontechnical outline of magnecules can be found in the web page http://www.i-b-r.org/ir00020b.htm.

For the limited scope of this presentation we can say that, when analyzed via Gas Chromatographic Mass Spectrometers equipped with InfraRed DFetectors (GC-MS/IRD), magnegas™ results to be constituted by a large number of peaks from 2 amu all the way to 1,000 amu. Except for the pean at 2 amu (that represents hydrogen), all MS peaks remain unidentified by the computer following a search among all known molecules (usually up to 500,000 different molecules) and, when inspected with the InfraRed Detectors (IRD), the MS peaks show no infrared signature at their mass value, thus establishing that they cannot possibly be molecules (since valence bonds imply a necessary IR signature for large clusters, as it is the case of water that has a resonating IR frequency we used in microwave ovens).

More detailed studies and analyses have established that magnegas™ is composed of the new chemical species of magnecules that consist of clusters of individual H, C, O and other atoms, OH, CH and other dimers, single-valence bonded C-O and double-valence bonded C=O, and ordinary molecules such as H2, H2O, O2, triple-valence bonded CO and other molecules, all these constituents being bonded together by new attractive forces originating from the toroidal polarization of the orbitals of individual atoms.

Prof. Santilli has called "magnegases™" all gases with a magnecular structure. This implies that all gases produced via a submerged electric arc are indeed magnegases™.

Stated in layman's terms, the magnetic field in the atomic vicinity of 3,000-5,000 A of DC electric arcs are of the order of billions of Gauss. As such, they transform the electron clouds surrounding nuclei from their conventional distribution in all space directions into a doughnut shaped distribution inside which the charged electrons rotate. This rotation causes a very strong magnetic field (that has been established to be 1,415 times stronger than the nuclear magnetic field), under which field doughnut-shaped atoms snap together one against the other like small magnets irrespective of wether such atoms are isolated, or belong to a dimer such as OH or belong to an ordinary molecule such as CO.

FIGURE 8: A schematic view of Santilli magnecule, here depicted for the case of one unbounded hydrogen atom H in the top and a hydrogen molecule H2 at the bottom, when the bond is at absolute zero degrees temperature and in the absence of rotations. The new bond originates in the deformation of the orbital of the peripheral atomic electron of the H atom, from its natural space distribution, to the toroidal distribution of the figure, a deformation that is achieved via the use of the extremely intense magnetic fields in the vicinity of DC electric discharges. Due to their rotation inside such a toroid at very high speeds, the charged electron creates a new extremely intense magnetic field that has resulted to be 1,415 times stronger than the nuclear magnetic field. As a result, the moment two polarized atoms (rather than molecules) are put near each other via pressure and other means, they snap together like little magnets. Once such a new bond is established, the resulting magnecule rotates and vibrates as a hole, thus explaining that individual polarizations are unstable, while coupled polarization are indeed stable at ordinary temperature, although they admit a value of the temperature at which all magnetic effects cease to exist (called the Curie Temperature). The Curie temperature of Santilli magnecules is generally given by the temperature of combustion, at which value all magnecules breakdown prior to and as the initiation of combustion.

It should be kept in mind that, since the process occurs ar the atomic and not at the molecular level as experimentally established, Santilli magnecules can be formed irrespective of whether the substance considered is diamagnetic or paramagnetic. This feature is important for the creation of a magnecular species in hydrogen, in view of its notorious diamagnetic character. More particularly, in the hydrogen molecule H2 the total magnetic field is zero because the two H atoms have opposite directions of their magnetic fields. However, even though the hydrogen molecule cannot be magnetically polarized as a whole, its individual hydrogen atoms can indeed acquire a magnetic polarization, thus experience Santilli magnecular bonds..

FIGURE 9: Print-outs of the chemical analysis on magnegas™ produced from water conducted at McLellan Air Force Base in Sacramento, California, on June 18, 1998, via a GC-MS/IRD. The top view shows the MS peaks from 40 amu to 500 amu and the bottom view shows their IR signature. Magnegas™ produced from water should have the CO2 at 44 amu as the heaviest molecule (since no hydrocarbon can survive at the 10,000 degrees F of the electric arc). Therefore, only the CO2 peak should appear on the left hand side of the mass spectrum. On the contrary, the CO2 peak appears nowhere in the mass spectrum, none of the macroscopic mass peaks were identified by the computer among all known molecules, and none of these mass peaks had any IR signature at their mass value. These analyses signaled the birth of a new, non-valence chemical species. Note that the IRD did detect the presence of CO2 in magnegas™, but only as one constituent of all peaks in the MS.

The novel magnecular structure of magnegas™ has dramatic environmental implications. To begin, the lack of a conventional hydrocarbon structure implies the elimination of carcinogenic and other toxic substances in the exhaust. The same new structure implies the capability of essentially synthesizing clean fuels with predetermines features. For instance, it is not possible to increase the hydrogen content of diesel or gasoline since hydrogen is a gas and will not have a valence bond with ordinary liquids. On the contrary, the hydrogen content of magnegas™ can be increased via the mere selection of liquid feedstocks rich in hydrogen and other means. Also, conventional fossil fuels cannot contain oxygen (except when it is valence bonded). By comparison, magnegas™ does indeed contain a significant percentage of oxygen under magnetic bonds (see the data below on the combustion exhaust).

In summary, at the atomic scale, magnegas™ produced from water is composed of 50% hydrogen atoms, 25% Oxygen atoms and 25% Carbon atoms (where H and O originate from the dissociation of water and C originates from the electrodes). At the magnecular scale, magnegas™ is composed of clusters containing isolated H, C and O atoms and all their non-hydrocarbon combinations, such as OH, CH, C-O, C=O, H2, O2, H2O, CO and CO2. Magnegases produced from other feedstocks have a similar magnecular structure.


6. THE NOVEL CHEMICAL STRUCTURE OF MAGNEHYDROGEN™

The hydrogen content of magnegas™ is, perhaps, the scientifically most interesting and financially most profitable part of the Magnegas™ Technology. In fact, magnegas™ contains about 50% hydrogen in a new chemical species called Santilli MagneHydrogen™ with new chemical symbol MH (patented and international patents pending) that exhibits the following main characteristics:

(1) The analytic laboratory Adsorption Research of Dublin Ohio, conducted various measurements of specific weight of the new species that resulted to be 15.06 atomic mass units (amu), while ordinary hydrogen has the specific weight of 2.016 amu (see the figure below). The same measurements were subsequently confirmed by other laboratories. Adsorption Research obtained the new species by passing magnegas™ produced by recycling antifreeze waste through a 5 Armstrong zeolite filter, that essentially consists of a microporous molecular filter selecting a gas via a process called "molecular sieving," or molecular size exclusion.

(2) The analytic laboratory SpectraLab of Largo, Florida, conducted various chemical analyses of the same sample of magnehydrogen™ used for the preceding tests, that resulted to be composed of 99.2% hydrogen (see the figure below). These additional measurements were also confirmed by other independent laboratories. Spectra Lab conducted the measurements via the use of GC and, independently, via Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIRS). All measurements were normalized, air contamination was removed, and the lower detection limit was identified as being 0.01%.

(3) The analytic laboratory Toxic Lab of Los Angeles, California, conducted various measurements on the same sample of magnehydrogen™ used for the preceding two tests with Gas GC-MS, by identifying a peak at 2 amu representing hydrogen, although in a percentage dramatically less than 99.2%. The GC-MS also identified a variety of macroscopic peaks from 3 amu to 19 amu NOT representing any known molecules (see the figure below).

In summary, 50% or more of magnegas™ consists of a new species of hydrogen, called magnehydrogen™ (MH), whose specific weight is 7.45 times heavier than hydrogen, yet the species is composed of 99.2 % hydrogen.

These features dismiss as political-nonscientific any doubt on the existence of Santilli magnecules, because only the latter new species can account for the new peaks MH3, MH5, MH6, MH9, MH13, MH15, etc. all peaks which are clearly identified by the GC-MS in macroscopic percentage (see the figure below).

A scientific description of the new species MH is available in pdf format in the paper
THE NOVEL MAGNECULAR SPECIES OF HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN WITH INCREASED SPECIFIC WEIGHT AND ENERGY CONTENT by
by R. M. Santilli


FIGURE 10: A reproduction of the main part of the signed analytic report released by Adsorption Research of Dublin, Ohio, on the measurements of specific weight of MagneHydrogen™ (MH) contained in magnegas™ produced from antifreeze waste, which weight resulted to be 15.06 amu, namely, 7.45 times heavier of ordinary hydrogen.


FIGURE 11: A reproduction of the main part of the signed analytic report released by SpectraLab of Largo, Florida, on the chemical composition of the same MagneHydrogen™ of the preceding measurements, that resulted to be composed of 99.2% ordinary hydrogen. It should be indicated that the 0.78% methane detected by the instrument was perhaps formed by the instrument itself, rather than pre-existing in the species, because methane cannot possibly survive the 10,000 degrees F of the electric arc, and for other reasons. The final confirmation that methane did not exist in the original gas is given by its lack of detection by the GC-MS (see the figure below).

FIGURE 12: A reproduction of the main part of the signed analytic report released by Toxic Lab of Los Angeles, California, on GC-MS tests conducted on the same sample of MagneHydrogen™ of the preceding two tests, which identifies indeed a peak at 2 amu representing hydrogen, although in a percentage dramatically less than 99.2%, while clearly identifying new peaks in macroscopic percentages MH3, MH5, MH6, MH9, MH13, MH15, etc., all of which remained unidentified by the computer search among all known molecules. Note the lack of detection of a peak at 16 amu suitable to represent 0.78% methane CH4 detected by the IRD of SpectraLab.

The profits that can be derives from Santilli MagneHydrogen™ are established by the following features:

(i) Conventional hydrogen is currently sold in the U. S. A. at about 15 times the retail price of natural gas. Since magnegas™ is cost competitive with respect to natural gas (when produced in large volumes, of course), and since the cost of magnehydrogen™ is only twice that of magnegas™, one can begin to see the profits that can be derived from the sale of magnehydrogen™.

(ii) The profits indicated above refer to hydrogen in its conventional state H2 with 2.016 amu specific weight. Additional profits are possible because one cubic foot of the MH has 7.45 times the specific weight of one cubic foot of H2.

(iii) A submerged electric arc is dramatically more efficient in the production of hydrogen than any other existing method by at least a factor of ten.

(iv) H2 is produced today by breaking down its valence bonds either via electrolysis or via the reformation of natural gas, while MH is produced by breaking down the much weaker magnetic bonds that permit simple, much less expensive filtrations.

(v) Due to its magnetic properties, magnehydrogen™ can be used for new forms of hydrogenization of fuels and food products that are simply impossible for conventional molecular hydrogen.

In conclusion, Santilli's PlasmaArcFlow™ Recyclers also constitute a novel equipment for the production of a new species of hydrogen which is dramatically more efficient, less expensive and environmentally friendlier than current methods of hydrogen production. Needless to say, We have reported above scientific results. the industrial development of magnehydrogen™ is expected to require an investment of about three million dollars over a minimum of three years.


7. INCREASED EFFICIENCY OF FUEL CELLS OPERATED WITH MAGNEHYDROGEN™ AND MAGNEOXYGEN™

Prof. Santilli constructed rudimentary PlasmaArcFlow™ Recycler of Type 3-C (for gases as feedstock) that operated at minimal pressure (15 psi) and minimal DC electric power (that of a car battery). He then used this apparatus for the creation of the new species of MagneOxygen™, with chemical symbol MO.

The new MO species was tested in lieu of ordinary oxygen in a 2-cell Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell operated with conventional high purity hydrogen. The membrane material was Nafion 112; the catalyst in the electrodes was platinum acting on carbon; the plates for heat transfer were given by two nickel/gold plated material; the temperature of the fuel cell was kept constant via ordinary cooling means; the current was measured via a HP 6050AA electronic load with a 600 W load module; a flow rate for oxygen and hydrogen was assigned for each current measurement; both oxygen and hydrogen were humidified before entering the cell; the measurements reported herein were conducted at 30 degrees C.

The results of the measurements are summarized in the diagrams below THAT report relative measurements compared to the same conditions of the cell when operated with ordinary pure oxygen. As one can see, these measurements show a clear increase of the efficiency, power and voltage of the order of 5% when the cell was operated with MO. The increase was consistent and was easily repeated in time.


FIGURE 13: A view of the increase in efficiency, power and voltage of a test fuel cell operated with the new chemical species of Santilli MagneOxygen™ (MO as compared to the behavior of the same cell for ordinary oxygen. The results were repeated consistently several times. The species of MO used in these tests was minimally polarized via a rudimentary equipment operating at minimal pressure (15 psi) and DC electric power (1 kWh). Bigger increases of efficiency, power and voltage can be obtained via more adequate polarizations and, above all, via the JOINT use of polarized MagneHydrogen™ (MH) and MagneHydrogen™ (MH)

To appraise these results, one should note that the MO used in the tests was produced via a rudimentary equipment based on intermittent sparks operated with an ordinary automotive battery, and with the pressure limited to 15 psi. By comparison, the industrial production of MH and MO be done with an array of arcs each operated with continuous currents of thousands of Amperes, and at pressures of thousands of psi. It is evident that the latter conditions are expected to imply a major increase of the performance of the fuel cells when operated with MO. Still bigger increases in voltage, power and efficiency occur when the fuel cells are operated with both MH and MO.

These latter results cannot be disclosed at this writing for security reasons. Interested visitors are suggested to contact Prof. Santilli at info@magnefuels.com.

In summary, the above and other experimental evidence establishes that fuels with a magnecular structure have an energy release bigger than those with conventional chemical structure. This result should be expected because the orbitals in ordinary species have a distribution in all space directions, while the same orbitals have a distribution in magnecules that is already that of the final substance. It then follows that magnecular structures reduce orbital modifications in chemical reactions, thus increasing outputs

As an example, the orbital of an ordinary hydrogen atom has a spherical distribution, as well known. However, when the same hydrogen atom is part of the water molecule H-O-H, its orbital is restricted to an essentially toroidal distribution perpendicular to the H-O-H plane. Therefore, in the formation of the water molecule, the chemical reaction must restrict the orbitals from a space to a toroidal;l distribution. Prof. Santilli's magnecules already have said toroidal distribution, thus reducing its alteration in chemical reactsions and improving efficiency.


8. MAGNEGAS™ EXHAUST SURPASSES EPA REQUIREMENTS WITHOUT CATALYTIC CONVERTER

Extensive measurements of magnegas™ exhaust were conducted in November 2000 by the automotive laboratory Liphardt & Associates of Long Island, New York, certified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA),via a Honda Civic that was produced for compressed natural gas but was operated with magnegas™ without any change to show the interchangeability of these two fuels, as well as the already existence in the market of cars that can be operated with magnegas™ (see Section 13).

A detailed report on the measurement is available in the web page http://www.magnegas.com/technology/part7.htm. A summary of the measurements is provided in the table below.
 

Element MagneGas (MG) Natural Gas Gasoline EPA Standards
Hydro-carbons 0.026 gm/mi 0.380 gm/mi
2460% of MG emission
0.234 gm/mi
900% of MG emission
0.41 gm/mi
Carbon Monoxide 0.262 gm/mi 5.494 gm/mi
2096% of MG emission
1.965 gm/mi
750% of MG emission
3.40 gm/mi
Nitrogen Oxides 0.281 gm/mi .732 gm/mi
260% of MG emission
0.247 gm/mi
80% of MG emission
1.00 gm/mi
Carbon Dioxide 235 gm/mi 646.503 gm/mi
275% of MG emission
458.655 gm/mi
195% of MG emission
No EPA standard exists for Carbon Dioxide
Oxygen 9%-12% 0.5%-0.7%
0.04% of MG emission
0.5%-0.7%
0.04% of MG emission
No EPA standard exists for Oxygen

FIGURE 14: Measurements of magneGas™, natural gas, and gasoline exhaust by the EPA certified automotive laboratory Liphardt & Associates conducted in November 2000.

Note the dramatic quality of magnegas™ exhaust measured in a Honda Civic as compared to the exhaust of natural gas and gasoline in the same car, and current EPA requirements. In fact, magnegas™ exhaust contains about 1/15-th of the EPA requirements; has about 50% less green gases (CO2) then gasoline exhaust; and contains 9% to 12 % breathable oxygen. Therefore, magnegas™ is the only fuel whose exhaust can sustain life (hydrogen exhaust cannot sustain life because of the lack of oxygen).

The following comments are important:

(1) In view of the above data, the automotive laboratory Liphardt & Associates issued a written statement according to which cars running on magnegas™ can operate without catalytic converter while surpassing current EPA requirements.

(2) The presence of CO in magnegas™ exhaust corresponds to the presence of unburned gasoline in the exhaust of a gasoline fueled car, because CO is fuel for magnegas™ while it is a combustion by-product for gasoline. Therefore, the CO measured by Liphardt & Associates indicates that the combustion in the used Honda Civic was not optimized for magnegas™, since that car had been produced for natural gas and used for magnegas™ without change.

(3) Magnegas™ is produced at 10,000 degrees F of the electric arc at which temperatures no hydrocarbon can survive. Therefore, the detected traces of hydrocarbons originated from the seepage of oil through the piston rings and other sources, rather than from magnegas™.

In volume percentage, when burning in open air, magnegas™ exhaust is composed of about 50% water vapors (originating from the combustion of 50% of its hydrogen content) , about 12%-14% breathable oxygen, about 4%-6% carbon dioxide, no hydrocarbon, and no carbon monoxide, while all remaining exhaust components are inert atmospheric gases.


9. ANOMALOUS ENERGY CONTENT OF MAGNEGAS™

All gases with the novel magnecular structure have an energy content generally bigger than that of corresponding gases with conventional molecular structure. This feature has been experimentally established, not only with tests in fuel cells as reviewed above, but also with a variety of other experimental evidence. For instance, quantum chemistry predicts that magnegas™ produced from water should be composed of 50% H2 and 50% CO and have 312 British Thermal Units per standard cubic foot (BTU/scf). In reality that particular type of magnegas™ cuts metal twice as fast as acetylene that has 2,300 BTU/scf.

This excess energy content originates from the feature illustrated in in Figure 8 accoridng to which one isolated atom has a magnetic bond much stronger than that of the same atom when belonging to a conventional molecule. For the case of an isolated atom, the magnetic field of the unbounded electron is very strong and it also becomes polarized, thus contributing to the general magnetic bond as depicted in Figure 8. On the contrary, when the same atom is bonded to another into a molecule, valence electrons are coupled into singlet pairs (with antiparallel spins and magnetic moments), thus resulting in a null total magnetic field of the valence pair. As a result, molecules have a magnetic bond weaker than the sum of the magnetic bonds of the uncoupled atoms due to the loss of the magnetic contribution of the electrons when in singlet valence pairs.

This theoretical predictions has been confirmed several times. In fact, numerous Gas Chromatographic Mass Spectrometric tests have confirmed the presence in magnegas™ of isolated H, C and O atoms. This feature is crucial to understand the excess energy release of magnegas™ over that released by conventional fuels See Section 13 below). At the time of magnecule break-down due to the initiation of combustion, isolated H, C and O atoms recombine into H2, CO and other molecules, by releasing huge amounts of energy that does not exist in gases with conventional molecular structure.

In fact, the creation of H2 releases 105 Kcal/mole, the creation of CO releases 255 Kcal/mole, the creation of H2O releases 57 Kcal/mole, etc. These recombinations account for the extra energy released by the combustion of magnegas™ with respect to that of fuels with molecular structure. It then follows that, all technological efforts are centered in maximizing the presence in magnegas™ of atoms without valence bonds as a necessary condition to increase their energy output and environmental quality.

The actual measurement of the BTU content of magnegases™ is extremely difficult for various reasons, such as:

1) The BTU content of combustible gases with conventional chemical structure is a constant, in the sense that it remains the same for different combustions, e.g., whether the combustion occurs at atmospheric pressure in air or at high pressure in an internal combustion engine. By comparison, the BTU content of magnegases™ depend on the characteristics of the selected combustion. For instance, the mere replacement in a car running on magnegas™ of its standard 15,000 V coil with a race coil having 45,000 V implies an increase of the car power of up to 30% (see Section 13 on automotive applications). Therefore, the study of the BTU content of magnegases™ requires the identification of all main features of the desired combustion, including pressure, environment (whether in open air or in a closed chamber), type and energy release of the ignition, etc.

2) Conventional gases have a unique chemical composition, resulting in a unique BTU content. By comparison, the chemical composition of a magnegas™ depends on various factors, including the liquid feedstock used for its production, the DC electric power of the arc, the operating pressure of the recycler, and other factors, thus preventing a universal assignment of BTU content. For instance, the magnecular composition depends directly on the strength of the magnetic field in the vicinity of the DC discharge. Different magnecular structures for the same basic atoms then imply different BTU contents. Moreover, due to their magnetic features, the energy content of magnegases™ can be enhanced dramatically with various additives, of course, to the detriment of the purity of its exhaust. Therefore, the study of the BTU content of magnegasewes™ requires the identification of the liquid feedstock used for its production, the operating power, pressure and temperature of the recycler, and other featuresß.

3) Contrary to popular beliefs even among technicians, virtually no existing calorimeters can be used for meaningful measurements of BTU content of magnegases. For instance, bomb calorimeters are recommendable for solids, rather than gases, and there are difficulties in measuring the combustion exhaust, thus generally yielding an "experimental belief," rather than an actual measurement, when used for anomalous gases. In fact, it is possible that a significant percentage of the original gas did not burn due to anomalies and was released in the exhaust, in which case no claim of BTU content has any meaning. Similarly, other available calorimeters have been built for testing conventional gases for which the stochiometric ratio (air to gas) is known. Magnegases™ are internally very rich in oxygen, thus requiring a stochiometric ratio that can be down to 1/5 that of conventional gases, thus being generally outside the range of available instruments. Even the best calorimeter yields for magnegases™ "experimental beliefs", rather than actual measurements. For instance, a measurement of BTU at one arbitrary value of the stochiometric ratio has no meaning because the same measurement for the optional ratio could yield a multiple of BTU. Finally, none of the flowmeters of current calorimeters is usable for magnegas™ due to its magnetic anomalies. Therefore, a calorimeter for the measurement of the BTU content of magnegas™ should have the following capabilities:

3-i) be equipped with special flowmeters subjected to independent calibrations;

3-ii) permit a large variation of the stochiometric ratio so as to identify the BTU content at the optimal ratio;

3-iii) permit chemical analyses of the combustion exhaust so as to verify the complete combustion;

3-iv) permit BTU measurements with different pressures of magnegases™; and

3-v) permit BTU measurements with different ignitions with increasing voltage and energy releases.

By keeping in mind the above aspects, we can release the following generic values:

ENERGY CONTENT OF MAGNEGAS™ PRODUCED FROM WATER WHEN BURNING IN OPEN AIR: about 500 BTU/scf;

ENERGY CONTENT OF MAGNEGAS™ PRODUCED FROM ANTIFREEZE WASTE WHEN BURNING IN OPEN AIR: about 600 BTU/scf;

ENERGY CONTENT OF MAGNEGAS™ PRODUCED FROM OIL WASTE OR CRUDE OIL WHEN BURNING IN OPEN AIR: about 800 BTU/scf.

The above values have been derived via comparative tests with the energy content of natural gas and depend on various aspects, such as the filtration of the gases, the pressure of the original container, etc. As such, they should only be considered as of indicative value.

Note that, nowadays, the Magnegas™ Technology can produce essentially the same type of magnegas™ with the same purity of the combustion exhaust irrespective of the original liquid feedstock and other factors. This unification is evidently essential for uniformity of uses and requires that all PlasmaArcFlow™ Recyclers are operated according to certain standards.


10. USE OF MAGNEGAS™ FOR THE GENERATION OF ELECTRICITY

As it is well known, fossil fueled electric power plants release the biggest source of pollution in our atmosphere today. Most of the alarming environmental problems identified in Section 1 are caused precisely by the combustion of fossil fuels in electric power plants.

These serious environmental problems have stimulated predictable legal actions. For instance, various electric power plants in the Mid-West of the U.S.A. have been sued by the States of Pennsylvania and Maryland for the damage caused by acid rain (since winds bring pollution Eastward), while virtually all fossil fueled power plants in the U.S.A. are nowadays paying large fines from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

FIGURE 15: An illustration that fossil fueled electric power plants are the biggest pollutants in our planet, with implications for our environment of increasingly cataclysmic character.

Regrettably, the electric power industry is afflicted by considerable misinformation even among technicians. For instance, it is generally believed that "natural gas is less polluting than gasoline or other fossil fuels." In reality, the EPA comparative measurements of the table of Figure 14 establish that, under the same conditions (same car with same weight used with the same computerized EPA routine, for the same duration of time), natural gas is "more" polluting than gasoline. In fact, under said equal conditions, natural gas exhaust contains 61% "more" hydrocarbons, about 41% "more" green gases, and about 200% "more" nitrogen oxides than gasoline exhaust.

Part of the misinformation is due to the fact that the flame in open air of natural gas is evidently cleaner than that of liquid fuels. However, the origin of the disparity is the fact that, liquid fuels have a much bigger energy density than natural gas. Therefore, serious comparison of pollutants must be done by comparing the pollutants for the production of the same energy, rather than visually comparing flames.

More specifically, one gallon of liquid fuels used in electric power plants generally contains about 120,000 British Thermal Units of energy (BTU), while one standard cubic foot (scf) of natural gas contains about 1,000 BTU. It is then evident that the flame of a gas must be cleaner than that of a liquid fuel. Serious comparison must be done instead with the gasoline gallon equivalent of natural gas that is given by 120 scf. The measurements of the table of Figure 14 establish that the combustion of one gasoline gallon equivalent (120 scf) of natural gas is much more polluting than the combustion of one gallon of liquid fossil fuels.

FIGURE 16: A view of a 10 kW AC electric generator used for extensive tests with the combustion of natural gas, magnegas™, and a mixture of natural gas and magnegas™. Best results were obtained with a 50-50 mixture of natural gas and magnegas™ for both, production of electricity and decrease of pollutants. It should be kept in mind that, when operated on pure magnegas™ electric generators can be used indoor because they produce no toxic substances and release up to 14% breathable oxygen in the exhaust.

FIGURE 17: A view of a 1 MW AC electric generator produced to operate on natural gas, that can be operated without any change with pure magnegas™ or any mixture of natural gas and magnegas™.

One of the most important applications of Santilli's technology is the use of magnegas™ for the reduction of pollutants in fossil fueled electroc power plants. This task can be done according to the following three methods:

7.A: USE OF MAGNEGAS™ AS ADDITIVE TO FOSSIL FUELS IN ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS.
An excellent application of magnegas™ is that as an additive to any fossil fuel for the production of electricity in current power plants, with a reduction of the pollutants down to the desired levels.

Magnegas™ mixes very well with natural gas. Therefore, magnegas™ can be injected anywhere in natural gas pipelines or it can be injected directly in the plant furnace. When electric power plants burn oil or coal, magnegas™ can be also injected into the furnace, resulting in a number of advantages, such as:

(1) Improved quality of the exhaust via the mere decrease in the burning of fossil fuels for the same deliver of electric power, due to the dramatically better quality of magnegas™ exhaust;

(2) Improved efficiency due to various technical reasons, such as the much bigger flame temperature of magnegas™ (since it contains about 50% hydrogen that has the biggest flame temperature among all gases);

(3) Pre-setting the exhaust quality as required by the EPA, and then computing the percentage of magnegas™ needed for its achievement.

As an example based on the data of Figure 14, the use of 30% magnegas™ as an additive to natural gas in electric power plants would imply a reduction in the exhaust of about 30% hydrocarbons, 30% CO and 20% of CO2. These reductions are significant inasmuch as they would bring the emission within current EPA standards in most cases, thus avoiding the currently paid large EPA fines, as well as avoiding millions of dollars currently spent in attempting to improve the exhaust with filters and other essentially ineffective technologies.

Besides the above reductions, magnegas™ can alleviate the biggest environmental problem caused by fossil fueled electric power plants, oxygen depletion, (the permanent removal of breathable oxygen from our atmosphere as presented in Section 1).

Unlike fossil fuels that contain no oxygen, magnegas™ is synthesized with a large percentage of oxygen trapped inside its magnecular clusters (see Section 5). In particular, this oxygen originates from liquid feedstocks, rather than from the atmosphere (in which case it would cause oxygen depletion). As an example, magnegas™ produced from antifreeze waste releases up to 14% breathable oxygen in its exhaust when burned in open air.

It is then evident that magnegas™ can reduce the alarming oxygen depletion caused by fossil fueled power plants, estimated in the permanent removal of about five millions metric tons of breathable oxygen per day. It should be noted that, when magnegas™ is used as an additive to fossil fuels, no oxygen is expected to be produced in the joint combustion exhaust, because the oxygen emitted by magnegas™ combustion is used for the combustion of fossil fuels. The important point is that the use of magnegas™ as an additive to fossil fuels significantly decreases their oxygen depletion, besides reducing the emission of carcinogenic substances and green house gases.

In regard to costs, the mere elimination of the million dollars EPA fines currently paid by the industry should be sufficient motivation for the use of magnegas™ as an additive to fossil fuels. In any case, the cost of large volume production of magnegas™ by electric power plants (especially at night) is expected to be of the order of about $ 5 per million BTU. Therefore, the cost of magnegas™ to electric power plants would be comparable to the current cost of fossil fuels (that is of about $ 10 per million BTU in natural gas) and, therefore, suitable for the use of magnegas™ as an additive without implying an increase of the cost of electricity to consumers.

In view of all the above, it is hoped that electric power plants take into serious consideration the use of magnegas™ as an additive to fossil fuels because the technology is available now, where "serious consideration" is referred to the purchase of a PlasmaArcFlow™ Recycler and the initiatin of production of electricity with the joint combustion of magnegas™ and fossil fuels.

7.B: USE OF MAGNEGAS™ FOR PEAK DEMANDS OF ELECTRICITY
Surges in demands of electricity during the day are, by far, the most expensive for electric power companies and the most damaging to the environment. This occurrence should be compared to the corresponding condition at night in which the demand of electricity is minimal, while electric power plants are forced to run at full combustion (because a reduction at night followed by a return to normal use during the day would be more expensive than a steady run). Finally, one should keep in mind that said daily surges are generally local within the electric grid, namely, they occur at specific locations, while requiring the increase of production of electricity at the origin and its propagation throughout the entire grid with evident losses.

A second important use of the magnegas™ technology is that of:

(a) Using the electric energy available at night for the production of magnegas™ via total recyclers operating at pressures of the order of 300 psi;

(b) Storing the magnegas™ produced in this way in pressure tanks without the use of compressors (to avoid a significant cost); and

(c) Setting up in strategic locations in the grid a number of magnegas™ operated electric generators for the automatic production of electricity during local peak demands.

As an important bonus, while producing electricity, magnegas™ recyclers eliminate unwanted liquid wastes from the local community, such as engine or cooking oil waste, animal waste, etc..

The technology for the actuation of the above important application of magnegas™ is available now. It is only up to to electric power companies to make the necessary investments.

7.C: USE MAGNEGAS™ TOTAL RECYCLERS AS NEW, CLEAN ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS.
Recall from Section 2 that the specific task received by Prof. Santilli from President Carter and his Administration was to develop new clean energies. Even though we are not authorized to disclose to the public the development of basically novel and clean energy sources permitted by hadronic mechanics, we can indicate an easily predictable application of the magnegas™ technology: the use of the large heat produced by the hadronic reactors in the processing of oil for the production of steam via heat exchangers, which steam can power turbine operated DC generators for the partial self-generation of the DC electricity needed by the electric arc.

FIGURE 18: A 3D view of an industrial Total Recycler under construction by Prof. Santilli, that shows the DC operated recycler in the center, the steam powered turbine at the bottom for the partial generation of the DC electricity needed by the arc via the use of the internal heat produced by the recycler, and a magnegas™ fueled AC generator at the top. Operations are initiated with the AC generator providing the electricity needed by the AC-DC converter. When the recycler reaches steam producing temperature, the DC generator is activated for the partial production of electricity needed by the arc, with full self-sufficiency being possible via additional non-polluting heat producing means, such as solar panels or magnegas™ combustion. After achieving self-generation of DC electricity, the AC generator releases the current into the grid, or the produced current is used for other purposes. When the heat produced by the recycler is complemented with other energy sources to achieve self-sufficiency in the production of the DC electricity, Total PlasmaArcFlow™ Recyclers constitute new nonpolluting electric power plants.

It should be indicated that, normally, the heat produced by Total Recyclers is not sufficient for the complete self-generation of DC electricity. Recall from the preceding sections that the production of one scf of magnegas™ from oil requires about 50 Wh = 170 BTUh of AC electricity, or, for AC-DC converters with 85% efficiency, about 42 Wh = 145 BTUh of DC electricity. Under the ideal conditions predicted by quantum chemistry, the creation of one scf of magnegas™ should produce about 2,250 BTU of heat. However, only about 300 BTU = 87 Wh of heat are generally measured in conventional hadronic reactors without special provisions we cannot here disclose.

By recalling that the utilization of heat via a heat exchanger has a very low efficiency, it should be assumed that 50% of said 300 BTU = 87 W are lost in heat dissipation, and only 25% of the remaining heat can be converted to DC electricity via a steam powered turbine. Therefore, the recycler can normally produce only 10 DC Wh, that is 23% of the required 42 Wh electricity per scf of magnegas™.

However, there are a number of ways to bring Santilli's PlasmaArcFlow™ Total Recyclers to complete self-generation of the DC electricity. Those we can mention here are given by the use of solar power, wind power, or the burning of part of magnegas™ produced for bringing the steam coming out of the heat exchangers to supercritical temperatures sufficient for said complete self-sufficiency.

Again, the technology for the use of Total Recyclers as basically new and clean electric power plants is available now. It is only up to electric power companies and/or other industries to make the necessary investments.


11. USE OF THE MAGNEGAS™ TECHNOLOGY FOR RECYCLING CITY AND FARM SEWAGE

City sewage treatment plants purify water via various chemical processes, but they also release pollutants in the air consisting of plumes of methane, sulfur and nitrogen oxides, thus contributing to global warming. Moreover, in order to operate, sewage treatment plants require large parcels of city land, and smell badly, thus devaluing generally prime land.

One of the primary applications of the technology is to process city sewage with Linear PlasmaArcFlow™ Recyclers while producing:

1) magnegas™, with environmental features better than those of natural gas or other fossil fuels, at a reduced cost;

2) irrigation water, that qualifies as liquid fertilizer for organic products; and

3) carbonaceous precipitates, that can be used for the production of electrodes or as synthetic coal.

Alternatively, cities and municipalities emerge from the technology as possessing a continuous and inextinguishable source for the production of magnegas™ in any desired volume, thus permitting their self-sufficiency in the production of a clean fuel for city transportation and other needs.

As stated earlier, the Santilli Magnegas™ Technology turns sewage into the biggest competitor of crude oil.

To understand the implications of the technology for cities and municipalities, one of the biggest problems for building new villages and communities is the construction of the underground pipes for the connection to the main treatment plant, which connection generally costs millions of dollars, while hooking up new villages to a treatment system which is generally in already overloaded conditions. These (and other) problems are eliminated by the PlasmaArcFlow™ Technology because it permit new villages to achieve complete independence in the processing of their own sewage, while producing a clean fuel for local residents, and water excellent as fertilizer for local lawn.

Some of the advantages of the technology are: saving millions of dollars in costs for new sewage connections; avoiding the overload of already overloaded treatment plants; eliminating bad odors; producing a clean fuel in large volumes; releasing excellent irrigation water; and other benefits. These benefits illustrate the advantages of the Magnegas™ Technology for the processing of city sewage.

FIGURE 19: Specs on some of the recommended PlasmaArcFlow™ Linear Recyclers.

Agricultural sewage is another source of large pollution due to the lack of effective methods for the recycling of millions of gallons of sewage produced daily by millions of caws, pigs and other animals. As a result, contemporary farms, meat and dairy companies are paying millions of dollars of EPA fines per day.

FIGURE 20: A view of a pig farm, that is a an additional large pollutant due to the insufficiency of current methods for the recycling of dense liquid sewage.

Another important application of the technology is the recycling of liquid animal sewage via either the Total or the Linear Recyclers. Best profits are made when the recyclers operate at night, due to the lower cost of electricity. Also, the recycling of large volumes of animal sewage implies the production of very large volumes of magnegas™.
.

For these and other factors, the recycling at night of agricultural liquid sewage via Total or Linear Recyclers is the ideal complement for the co-generation of electricity during peak daily demands, as indicated in the preceding section. In fact, as indicated in the preceding section, magnegas™ produced at night can be stored in large tanks and then released during the day to power electric generators on automatic stand-by for peak demands.

To have an idea of the volume of magnegas™ that can be produced from the recycling of farm sewage, recall that one unit of volume of liquid is turned into 1,000 units of volumes of magnegas™. Therefore, one million gallons of farm sewage per day can produce trillions of gallons of magnegas™ per day, with the corresponding production of millions of kWh of electricity per day, while resolving an environmental problem that is endangering the very existence of animal farms.

Farm sewage can be processed with the magnegas™ technology according to one of the following three methods:

METHOD I: TOTAL PROCESSING. This method requires the use of a Total Recycler operated in such a way that the liquid feedstock is completely eliminated from our planet and turned into magnega™, heat and carbonaceous precipitates. This method is recommendable for the recycling of very dense liquid feedstock (provided that it can be pumped through the arc) under the primary need for larger quantities of magnegas™ and heat. The equipment is completely automatic, including the automatic refill of the recycler tower, requires minimal space, can be best assembled on a car trailer, and releases no odor since all operations are internal.

METHOD 2: BATCH PROCESSING. This method requires a Total Recycler and the processing of the liquid feedstock until it is completely sterilized by the electric arc as well as by the 400 degrees F of its operation, after which the processed liquid is pumped into conventional equipment for the separation of the carbonaceous solids in suspension, resulting in a residual, clean and sterilized, liquid fertilizer. This method is recommendable for heavy liquid feedstock when rapidity of its recycling is requested without its dilution. The method is also odor free. The automatic controls include real time chemical analysis to assure complete sterilization.

METHOD 3: LINEAR PROCESSING. This method requires the use of a Linear Recycler and the dilution of heavy liquid sewage (via use use of tap, well or lake water) down to about 10% bio-contaminants. This method is recommendable when the rapidity of recycling is the dominant aspect, and it is also odorless as the preceding ones since all operations are internal. In this case the flow is automatically controlled by real time sensors assuring the complete sterilization of the liquid feedstock.


12. PROCESSING CRUDE OIL INTO THE CLEAN-BURNING OXYGEN-RICH MAGNEGAS™

The Magnegas™ Technology is the best technology currently available for the oil industry to keep producing crude oil at the desired rate, while resolving the environmental problem caused by fossil fuels, decreasing costs and increasing profits. In short, Santilli's Technology is the best available friend to oil industries.

In fact, Prof. Santilli conceived and developed the magnegas™ technology for the primary purposes of

(1) processing crude oil into a fuel dramatically cleaner than gasoline;

(2) at a cost competitive with respect to that of refineries;

(3) while having a number of side advantages, such as the elimination of spills during transportation (because magnegas™ is lighter than air), the capability of producing magnegas™ wherever and whenever desired, and the possibility of turning current gas stations, car dealers, utilities, municipalities and consumers into fuel producers.




FIGURE 21: A view of the ecological horrors caused by the transportation of crude oil, the recent breaking-up of an oil tanker off the Western coast of Europe, with consequential spill of over 100,000 gallons of crude oil. As a result of this latest ecological disaster, the European Community has initiated the imposition of severe restrictions on crude oil tankers, such as the prohibition to enter the Adriatic sea and other seas, while insurance companies have skyrocketed their premium to oil companies. All these problems are eliminated by the Santilli Magnegas™ Technology because the processing of crude oil into magnegas™ at the well, and the transportation of magnegas™, in lieu of crude oil, imply the impossibility of any spill, since magnegas™ is lighter than air. In turn, the elimination of oil spills implies, alone, the savings to the oil industry of billions of dollars in insurance costs per year.

FIGURE 22: Prototype of a large Total Recycler with 300 kW for the processing of crude oil into magnegas™ built by Prof. Santilli in May 2001 for test purposes.


FIGURE 23: A 3D view of the total recycler under completion by Prof. Santilli for the self-\generation of the DC electricity, so that the recycler can operate at the location of oil wells in any area, including desert or other areas without electricity.

Moreover, the Magnegas™ Technology permits the synthesis of new fuels, such as the creation of hydrogen- or oxygen-rich new fuels, that are impossible for old technologies under valence bonds, but are now technologically abnd industrially possible thanls to Prof. Santilli's new magnecular bonds.

For these and other applications, please contact our technical staff at info@magnefuels.com


13. USE OF MAGNEGAS™ AND MAGNEHYDROGEN™ AS AUTOMOTIVE FUEL

The dream which stimulated the initiation of the research on the technology some two decades ago, the achievement of a 100% American clean fuel, is today a reality because magnegas™ can now be produced in any desired quantity, in any desired location, at any desired time, while being cleaner, safer and cheaper then gasoline and other fossil fuels (of course, when produced in quantity).

FIGURE 24: A view of the Ferrari 308 GTSi 1980 converted to operate with Santilli Magnegas™ while surpassing EPA requirements without catalytic converter. This automobile was first presented at the Ferrari meeting organized by the famous Ferrari magazine "Cavallino" at The Breakers in West Palm Beach, Florida, in January 16-20, 2001. This Magnegas™™ Ferrari was successfully tested on the nearby Moroso International Race Track on January 16 to 18, 2001. It proved to have the same performance as the gasoline operated version while having no hydrocarbons, CO or other toxic substances in the exhaust, emitting about 10% of breathable oxygen and reducing by about 50% the CO2 emissions due to gasoline combustion. The same Magnegas™ Ferrari was successfully presented at a number of other events organized by the Ferrari Club of America in Florida, including tests in the race tracks at Sebring, Gainesville and other places.

FIGURE 25: The white Honda Civics operating on magnegas™ that was used by the EPA certified automotive laboratory of Liphardt & Associates for the exhaust measurements of Section 3. This particular car was injected and dedicated to magnegas™. With a tank of 2,500 scf of magnegas™ at 3,600 psi the car had about 2 hours of range in city traffic, while with a tank of 4,000 scf at 5,000 psi and the same tank size, this Honda had an autonomy of about 3.2 hours, thus being fully sufficient for all commuting purposes.


It is important to note that car capable of operating on magnegas™ are already in production and use today all over the world, and are given by cars produced to operate on Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). In fact, a brand new Honda Civic built to operate on natural gas was purchased; natural gas was removed from the car; the tank was filled-up with magnegas™; and the car operated normally from the first moment, thus proving that magnegas™ and natural gas are interchangeable,. Equally excellent results were obtained by using a 50-50 mixture of magnegas™ and natural gas (that can also operate without catalytic converter as one can see from the exhaust data of Figure 14).

FIGURE 26: The brown Honda Civic that was used for extensive comparative tests of operation on gasoline and on magnegas™. This car was injected for gasoline and carbureted for magnegas™. Transition from one fuel to the other was done via a switch while moving, and permitted the direct verification that performance with magnegas™ is similar than that with gasoline, while rvs are higher (because magnegas has about 140 octanes) and temperatures are lower (because 50% of magnegas™ exhaust is given by water vapors).

The conversion of gasoline fueled cars to operate on magnegas™ is simple and consists in: adding a pressure tank in the trunk, adding a fuel line; and installing a pressure regulator releasing magnegas™ into the intake manifold. In this case the car becomes "dual", namely it can operate either with gasoline or magnegas™. The transition from one fuel to the other is possible with a switch even while driving (see the brown Honda Civic above). The car can also be operated via the joint combustion of magnegas™ and gasoline with a dramatic improvement of the exhaust as indicted earlier.

FIGURE 27: A view of the two Honda Civic used for extensive tests on magnegas™.

Note that the Santilli Magnegas™ Technology changes the entire structure of the fuel industry, including production and distribution. For instance, the idea of producing the fuel in one single location and then shipping it to gas stations is rendered obsolete by the new technology because PlasmaArcFlow™ Recyclers are small and can be placed directly where the fuel is needed, thus eliminating fuel transportation altogether. As a result, thanks to the magnegas™ technology, current fuel distributors, car dealers, municipalities, fleet owners, etc. can became fuel producers.

FIGURE 28: A view of the Magnegas™ Filling Station essentially consisting of a Recycler (not shown in the figure), a conventional compressor and pressure tanks. It should be noted that new recyclers under construction will operate at high pressure, thus eliminating the need for the compressor. The same high pressure recyclers will have large storage areas, thus eliminating the need for tanks. With one of the new recyclers operating at high pressure, gas stations, car dealers, municipalities, fleet owners, etc., will become direct producers of a clean fuel,

The safety of magnegas™ over gasoline should also be noted. Gasoline is, by far, the most dangerous fuel used by mankind, because gasoline tanks are paper thin, and often rupture in car accidents, in which case gasolines spills and explodes. By comparison, high pressure magnegas™ tanks are dramatically safer (they are tested with guns) and cannot rupture under any possible car accident. In the event a magnegas™ fuel line (rathe than the tank) is broken by an accident, magnegas™ is lighter than air, rapidly disperses in the atmosphere, and does not spill. In the event of a flame near a ruptured line, magnegas™ burns without explosion (because combustion cannot propagate inside the tank due to the lack of oxygen, the fuel being gaseous -not so for a liquid fuel such as gasoline due to the air over the liquid line!). Also, gasoline refills are slow and dangerous, particularly for race cars, while the refill of magnegas™ is virtually instantaneous and safer, again, because magnegas™ is lighter than air. Finally, being a gas, magnegas™ weights less than gasoline, thus permitting a better performance.

Being composed by 50% of a new species of hydrogen, magnegas™ has about 130-140 octanes, while 50% of its exhaust is composed of water vapor. The high octanes permit higher rpm, while the production of water vapor during combustion permits lower engine temperatures. The gaseous nature of magnegas™ permits per se a better combustion, as well known (in fact, gasoline has to be atomized by the carburetor to achieve combustion, while never reaching the gaseous state).

It should be recalled, as indicated earlier, that magnegas™ is cost competitive over gasoline, of course, when produced in large volumes with large industrial recyclers. In fact, the gasoline gallon equivalent of magnegas™ is given by about 150 standard cubic feet (cubic feet at atmospheric pressure and temperature). The production of magnegas™ with industrial Total Recyclers of at least 1 MW yields a magnegas™ direct cost of about $ 0.52 per gasoline gallon equivalent, thus leaving ample margin for overheads and profits.

For further details, please contact info@magnefuels.com.


The use of MagneHydrogen™ (MH) as fuel for internal combustion engines is also significant. Since hydrogen is the fuel with the lowest specific weight, often it has to be of liquified to achieve sufficient range, as it is the case for the hydrogen car constructed by the German automaker BMW. In turn, liquefaction of hydrogen, its transportation and maintainment in the liquified state imply additional dramatic costs of the order of hundreds of times the cost of natural gas.

For instance, the gasoline gallon equivalent of hydrogen is given by 366 scf (because one gallon of gasoline has about 110,000 BTU while one scf of hydrogen has 300 BTU). It then follows that the equivalent of 20 gallon of gasoline would require 7,300 scf of hydrogen. At the gaseous state, such a volume would require so much space not to be practical in a car at currently permitted pressures, thus requiring liquefaction.

Liquefaction is completely eliminated by magnehydrogen™ because, due to its specific weight, the equivalent of 20 gallon of gasoline are given by about 1,000 scf of MH, namely, a volume that can be stored in the gaseous state at 3,600 psi in a small tank in the trunk of any car.


14. USE OF THE MAGNEGAS™ TECHNOLOGY IN CIVILIAN AND MILITARY SHIPS

The European Community is considering to prohibit American or other warships entering the Mediterranean Sea unless in case of war. Let us see why.

FIGURE 29: Warships and cruiseships dump in the oceans hundred of millions of gallons of highly toxic liquid wastes per day, while fish remains one of our primary food shource. The problem is so serious that the European Community is considering to prohibit American and other warships entering the Mediterranean Sea unless in time of war. These extremely toxic liquid wastes can be all recycled on board by Santilli's PlasmaArcFlow™ Recyclers, by releasing no pollutant at all in the ocean and producing a clean burning, oxygen Magnegas™. 

Because warships and cruise ships are floating cities each transporting up to 5,000 passengers and/or crews. It is estimated that they collectively dump in the oceans around the world:

(1) about 5,000,000 gallons of highly polluting oil-base liquid waste per day;

(2_ about 25,000,000 gallons of oily bilge waters per day;

(2_ about 200,000,000,000 gallons of sewage per day;

plus an un-identifiable amount of paints, paint thinners, dry-cleaning liquids, photo-chemicals and other extremely toxic waste pr day. Jointly, fish remains one of the biggest sources of our food

Santilli PlasmaArcFlow™ Recyclers can recycle on board ALL these contaminated liquid wastes, by releasing no pollutants in the oceans and producing a clean burning. oxygen rich Magnegas™. In particular,

# TOTAL RECYCLERS can completely eliminate highly polluting liquid wastes (1) and (2), and transform them into Magnegas™ that is usable on board for electric generation, heat usable for on board heating or cooling, and carbonaceous precipitates used for on board production of electrodes, while

LINEAR RECYCLERS can process ship highly polluting liquid wastes (2) and (3) into Magnegas™,carbonaceous precipitates and sterilized-filtered waters fully suitable for release in the oceans.

After the investment of several millions of dollars over two decades of research and development, the Santilli Magnegas™ Technology is ready for these tasks now. The only open issue is WHEN will the military and cruiseship companies take the initiative.


15. CONSUMER PLASMA-ARC-FLOW™ RECYCLERS

Prof. Santilli is working at a totally automatic and computerized consumer PlasmaArcFlow™ Recycler with 10 kWh (to consume essentially the same electricity as a dryer), using household liquid waste as feedstock, and capable of reaching 6,000 psi while operating at night, thus eliminating any need for a compressor. In this way, consumers can produce their own fuels and instantly fill-up their cars in the morning by merely connecting their tank to the recycler. It should be noted that, to reach market maturity, this project is expected to require an investment of about five millions dollars over a five years period.


16. USE OF MAGNEGAS™ FOR METAL CUTTING

Another important use of magnegas™ is that for metal cutting.

FIGURE 30: A view of Magnegas™ used as a metal cutting gas.

3.1.A. Metal cutting – an old process in search of new tools.

Metal cutting is used by businesses from auto body shops to railroad and shipyards to metal sculptors.
Acetylene has been traditionally used as a metal cutting gas. The extremely hot gases created by burning acetylene in combination with oxygen allow thick metals such as steel to be cut quickly.

FIGURE 31: Another view of Magnegas™ in metal cutting.

Acetylene is highly regulated by the U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) and OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration). This regulatory environment restricts its production, transport and use by making permits for new production facilities very difficult to get.

These additional restrictions have been implemented because acetylene is dangerous to make and transport since it is unstable and potentially explosive. 

Concerns about its use include its instability, cost (ranging from 17 cents to 25 cents per cubic foot and averaging 18.6 cents per cubic foot) and harmful, carcinogenic fumes contribute strongly to the need for a viable alternative.

The interim replacement for acetylene is liquefied petroleum gas, or LPG. LPG is often combined with Methylacetylene-Propadiene to create MAPP gas. While LPG and MAPP are somewhat cleaner and safer to transport, store and use, their fumes and explosive properties present many of the same problems and dangers as acetylene. Both are environmentally harmful, dangerous and contain many proven carcinogens restricting their use to outdoors or with expensive, elaborate ventilation systems.

LPG and MAPP are often equally as expensive as acetylene because production facilities are few and far between. Both can add to operating costs since they are slower to get to effective operating temperature versus acetylene impairing operator efficiency.

In all cases, for acetylene, MAPP and LPG, although no official studies are readily available, the reality of adverse health effects caused by fumes, particularly respiratory disease and cancers, are well recognized and understood by cutting torch operators.


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3.1.B. Santilli MagneGas™ is a safe, less expensive and equally effective metal cutting gas that can be produced on site and on demand.

MagneGasoffers five major advantages as an alternative to acetylene, MAPP and LPG as a cutting gas:

Improved Safety:  

MagneGas™ offers significant safety features:

Lower Cost:    

Compared to acetylene, MagneGas™ is very cost competitive even after considering cost of equipment, consumables, electricity and labor:

7.6 cents/cubic foot (cf) using our smallest unit, the MG-12 (see Section 2.3.B. for more details on the cost of operation);

7.2 cents/cf using the MG-25 (see Section 2.3.C. for more details on the cost of operation);

The MG-50 will provide even greater savings for high volume users

On site, on demand:

No complicated storage and use regulations and requirements, no late deliveries, no price increases, no special handling procedures, no invoices, no running out of gas, no rush orders or rush delivery charges. In short, a lot fewer worries. Use as much as you need when you need it, and, MagneGas™ has many other uses and benefits, too.

No compromises:

Magnegas™ has a faster heat-up time than LPG and comparable or better cutting speed and a smoother finish compared to either acetylene or LPG.

Added value that can reduce, and even eliminate the cost of MagneGas™:

Using the MG equipment to eliminate solvents, oils and other liquid wastes that are costly to dispose of can contribute significantly to offsetting costs of operation, reducing the net cost of gas while solving waste disposal issues. Tapping the heat generated by the MG equipment to create hot air, hot water or steam (depending on frequency of use) can contribute even more to the value of your Magnegas™ generating equipment.

To contact:

Engineering : e-mail info@magnefuels.com
Sales: e-mail info@magnefuels.com
Factory support: e-mail info@magnefuels.com>

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16.C. MagneGas™ as a cooking or heating
        gas - safe for indoor use

16.D. Carbon Monoxide is a deadly poison Carbon Monoxide (CO) is one of the most dangerous poisons produced by burning fossil fuels including gasoline, kerosene, natural gas, propane and liquefied petroleum gas. It replaces oxygen in the blood stream causing suffocation. The results of breathing CO include loss of function, brain damage and even death. The greatest danger occurs when fossil fuels are burned indoors where they can concentrate and amplify the damage that they cause. The Wayne State University School of Medicine maintains an expert web site to inform and educate about the dangers of carbon monoxide at (http://www.phymac.med.wayne.edu/FacultyProfile/penney/COHQ/co1.htm).

It begins with the following statements:

Today, Carbon Monoxide (CO) is the most commonly encountered and pervasive poison in our environment. It is responsible for more deaths than any other single poison, and for enormous suffering and morbidity in those who survive. 

Annually, due to CO exposure: 

It has been known for many years that CO poisoning can produce lasting health harm, mainly through its destructive effects on the central nervous system. Some studies found that 25-40% of people died during acute exposure, while 15-40% of the survivors suffered immediate or delayed neuropsychological deficit.

Now, an emerging body of evidence suggests that longer exposures to lower levels of CO, ie. chronic CO poisoning, are capable of producing a myriad of debilitating residual effects that may continue for days, weeks, months and even years.

According to the National Safety Council (http://www.nsc.org/lrs/statinfo/99008.htm), “Nearly 5,000 people in the United States are treated in hospital emergency rooms for CO (Carbon Monoxide) poisoning; this number is believed to be an underestimate because many people with CO symptoms mistake the symptoms for the flu or are misdiagnosed and never get treated. . . . It is responsible for more deaths than any other single poison, and for enormous suffering and morbidity in those who survive.”


The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (http://www.hud.gov/codtctrs.html) states that 3,000 of the emergency room visits resulting from carbon monoxide exposure are children under the age of 14 and urges everyone to install carbon monoxide detectors.

 It is a danger that millions of people are exposed to every day from campers to people who use gas or propane stoves, ovens, furnaces, space heaters, appliances and equipment at home or at work. And, carbon monoxide is not the only danger:

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16.E. Santilli MagneGas™ is safe for indoor use

MagneGas™ offers five major safety advantages over fossil fuels such as natural gas and propane:

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3.2.C. What is a life worth?

Magnegas™ is cost competitive with natural gas or propane when produced as a byproduct of desalinating salt water or treating well water, municipal waste or other wastes.

It can also be specifically engineered and produced for indoor use to yield a higher oxygen balance, enhancing its advantages at a reasonable incremental cost.

Even so, business and home consumers can easily justify an additional cost on the health and safety benefits alone.

They will not have to rely on health and safety alone, however, because:

Magnegas™ can be made in a central location for distribution or on site and on demand:

No complicated storage and use regulations and requirements, no late deliveries, no price increases, no special handling procedures, no invoices, no running out of gas, no rush orders or rush delivery charges. In short, a lot fewer worries. Make as much as you need when you need it.

Added value that can reduce, and even eliminate the cost of Magnegas™:

Using the MG equipment to treat solvents, oils and other liquid wastes that are costly to dispose of can contribute significantly to offsetting costs of operation, reducing the net cost of gas while solving waste disposal issues. Tapping the heat generated by the MG equipment to create hot air, hot water or steam (depending on frequency of use) can contribute even more to the value of your  Magnegas™ generating equipment.

Using WR (Water Recycling) equipment can provide a separate set of benefits when used to treat sewage, animal waste or to treat or desalinate water.

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3.2.D. What are the applications?

Magnegas™ is a superior replacement for any fossil fuel used in an indoor or air-static environment. While a Magnegas™ generator would be a bit much for all but the most demanding residence, our MG and WR models can be just right for businesses, campuses, public and private buildings and facilities, manufactured home and apartment communities, neighborhoods, farms and even municipalities of all types and sizes.*

For example:

Of course, there are many, many other uses.

* To optimize Magnegas™ combustion for cooking, heating and similar uses, a modified burner is required. A regulator is required for tank storage and distribution.

If you would like to find out how you can use Magnegas™ to enhance the quality of life, safety and protection of your business, facility or community, contact us.

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A view of Prof. Ruggero Maria Santilli, the Italian-American scientist who originated the new technology of clean non-hydrocarbon fuels with the new chemical species of magnecules. For Prof. Santilli's curriculum, please visit the web page http://www.i-b-r.org/santilli.htm . For an outline of the two decades of scientific research underlying the new technology, please visit the scientific web site http://www.i-b-r.org.  



 

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